This article produced by Craig DiLouie, LC, CLCP for the May 2018 issue of tED Magazine presents a roundtable by lighting experts talking about the impact of connected lighting. Reprinted with permission.
A major technological and product trend in lighting is connected lighting, consisting of LED luminaires integrated with networked lighting control. This powerful control option offers numerous benefits, including programmability and data collection, which in turn may enable lighting control to play a role in the Internet of Things (IoT). For distributors and contractors, connected lighting requires understanding how these products are set up, installed, and used, as well as well qualifying the many highly individualized options available.
To get an idea of how connected lighting is impacting the industry and where it’s going, tED’s Craig DiLouie, LC talked to six thought leaders in the lighting industry.
DiLouie: What are the major technological trends in connected lighting, what capabilities do they offer for lighting control, and how are they addressing inhibitors to adoption?
Gary Meshberg: Two of the major technology trends are found with wireless lighting control product capabilities as well as greater data mining from components within the networked lighting control system.
Wireless lighting control lends itself to a wider range of applications including new and retrofit installations in addition to scalability from a single room to a campus of buildings. In most cases, wireless products offer a full suite of lighting control strategies to maximize energy savings and occupant comfort. Wireless products are being included within lighting fixtures thereby reducing installation labor cost and potential wiring risks for the installer. Additionally, wireless systems can be scaled from a simple smart phone user interface for set up and day-to-day use, up to a full graphical dashboard interface.
Data mining which for the most part is an emerging technology trend provides data rich information beyond that of typical lighting control systems including, fixture performance, wayfinding, and system integration which can ultimately enhance the IoT value proposition. Data gathered from the lighting control system can be repurposed for a variety of uses including asset management, space utilization, energy analysis, occupant comfort, and wayfinding. As more products incorporate more data rich capabilities, the “bang for the buck” from the lighting control system should foster steady growth in this technology trend.
Gary Meshberg, LC, CLCP is director of specification sales for OSRAM Encelium and chair of the Lighting Controls Association, a council of the National Electrical Manufacturers Association.
DiLouie: Networked lighting control presents an opportunity for lighting to participate in the IoT. What do you see as the potential and where are we now in terms of capability to implement IoT projects? What opportunities are developing for electrical distributors to participate?
Kevin Willmorth: The IoT will eventually have a profound effect on lighting system operation and maintenance. Connected luminaires can provide live data to lighting contractors and distributors to lead customer needs by monitoring fixture performance and recommending remedial solutions before the customer is even aware a failure is eminent. Information collected from luminaires in use can also be compiled to provide designers more complete information to work from when redressing an existing facility to serve future needs.
Ultimately, there may also be a movement away from purchasing hardware to purchasing lumens delivered. Installed luminaires, connected through the IoT, will simply report the amount of light being delivered over a given period, to be invoiced monthly by a service provider (lighting contractor, distributor, or combined team), who provides the luminaires either at no cost, or at a significant discount, as part of the service package. This encourages everyone in the chain to reduce the amount of energy utilized to deliver the illuminance desired, as well as reduce over-illumination that occurs when the cost of lumens is not a direct consideration. For large facilities owners and operators with multiple structures under management, the ability to monitor lighting systems from a single access point over the Internet is a significant development. Distributors have an opportunity to step in and assist in making this connection by offering products that are accessible and connectable.
Kevin Willmorth is principal of Lumenique.
DiLouie: The first utilities are now rolling out a variety of rebates targeting networked lighting controls, based on the DesignLights Consortium specification and Qualified Products List. How big do you see the opportunity being, and what should electrical distributors do to take advantage of it?
Gabe Arnold: I think the evolution of LED technology provides a good indicator of what we will soon see with networked lighting controls. If you look back to 2010, you may recall this was when the first viable LED products were entering the market. It was also when the first LED utility rebates were becoming available. There was tremendous hype around LEDs then, though in terms of sales they accounted for less than 1 percent market share. The costs were high, there were performance challenges, and standards and education were sorely needed. Fast forward to today, and LEDs are a fraction of the cost they once were and now account for more than 90 percent of sales.
Where we are with networked lighting controls is where we were with LEDs back in 2010. The costs are high, but they are coming down. The first rebates are now becoming available. Technology performance challenges are being addressed. Standards are under development and educational efforts are underway. And while networked controls bring some additional challenges, we are at the beginning of what many are predicting to be exponential growth in the future, similar to what we saw with LEDs. Knowledge and education will be essential, and can provide a competitive advantage in capturing the business opportunities provided by the technology. That’s where we think distributors should start. Get yourself and your staff educated so that you are well prepared to take advantage of the new business opportunities as the utility programs ramp up.
Gabe Arnold, PE, LC is technical director for the DesignLights Consortium.
DiLouie: In a recent report, the U.S. Department of Energy projected significant adoption of connected lighting in the next 5-10 years if certain market barriers are addressed. What are these barriers, and how well is the industry doing to solve them?
James Brodrick: The tremendous energy savings that connected lighting could bring won’t be realized unless we reduce the uncertainty surrounding energy reporting accuracy and make that data more broadly usable via increased interoperability. DOE is using its connected lighting test bed (CLTB) to develop device and system-level test methods for characterizing energy reporting accuracy, and sharing the results with industry consortia and standards development organizations. DOE is also studying the energy reporting capabilities of power over Ethernet (PoE) systems and the energy impact of component selection, including PoE cables, to support and offer recommendations for industry best practices.
For outdoor lighting, DOE is working with electric utilities to analyze the energy-reporting accuracy of outdoor lighting controllers, and providing technical support to the ANSI C136 (Roadway and Area Lighting Equipment), ANSI C137 (Lighting Systems), and ANSI C12 (Electricity Metering) standards development committees. DOE is also actively characterizing the state of interoperability offered by commercial connected lighting systems, which is currently facilitated primarily through application programming interfaces, and engaging with industry consortia to develop approaches for deepening interoperability.
Another key barrier is cybersecurity. DOE is collaborating with UL and other Industrial Internet Consortium (IIC) members on their efforts to develop test methods for cybersecurity vulnerabilities. Evaluation of a V0 test method is complete, and IIC partners are supporting DOE with the development and implementation of a V1 major update.
James Brodrick is the lighting program manager for the U.S. Department of Energy, Building Technologies Office.
DiLouie: As connectivity emerges as a major technological trend in LED lighting, it raises questions about cybersecurity. What are the main issues, how will they affect adoption of networked lighting and the Internet of Things? What are the risks to electrical distributors and what can they do to mitigate them?
Mark Lien: Every wireless protocol used by connected lighting has been hacked and some with memorable flair. A drone infected a connected lighting system with a virus that then jumped from one lamp to another even on different networks. This showed lighting could be infected wirelessly from hundreds of feet away. Wireless protocols are often designed with options that trade user convenience for cybersecurity. An example of this is the option to require two passwords. Manufacturers are reluctant to add this level of security as it compromises the user experience. Connected lighting and the 6.4 billion IoT devices in use now are all vulnerable.
The legal liability for a manufacturer and electrical distributor who sell a product that gets hacked is not yet clear. Few cases have been filed so case law regarding responsibility for hacked lighting is weak. With estimates of IoT devices tripling by 2020, it will not take long for legal precedents to be established. Viewing this as a safety concern can help to minimize the risk of making or selling connected devices. Just as we rely on a UL label to minimize electrical safety hazards, we can look to UL to label products for cybersecurity safety. The White House and the Department of Homeland Security reached out to UL to set voluntary requirements and in April of 2016 UL launched their Cybersecurity Assurance Program (CAP) for IoT devices including lighting. CAP is designed to help vendors minimize cybersecurity risks and for consumers who want secure products. Similar risks exist with selling electrical products in that you can still be sued despite a UL label; however, showing that the products you sold were UL-listed when used as recommended minimizes liability and prompts questions about misapplication by the user. Until CAP products become commonplace, those first to market may even command a higher profit especially when vendors educate their customers about the advantage.
Mark Lien, LC, HBDP, CLMC, CLEP, LEED BD&C is industry relations manager for the Illuminating Engineering Society.
DiLouie: The 2019 version of the ASHRAE/IES 90.1 energy standard is approaching quickly. What do you expect to see in the next version, particularly in regards to controls? As LED lighting becomes more cost-effective in more applications, do you believe we will see significant additional reductions in lighting power allowances? With the increasing viability and cost-effectiveness of networked lighting controls, do you see a greater role in these systems as part of the mandatory requirements?
Eric Richman: Lighting control is an important part of the 90.1 requirements for commercial building lighting, and these requirements have been building significantly starting with the 2010 version. This has historically focused on individual control including occupancy sensors, daylighting, and automatic area shutoff. With the advent of the newer automated and networked control systems, the 90.1 standard took steps to first eliminate any legacy control language (related to individual control requirements) that could inhibit the effective application of automatic advanced controls to meet requirements. This started with the 2016 standard by removing local manual switch control requirements in open office spaces. This made it possible to easily apply advanced control systems that are known to be the most effective methods for energy savings these spaces.
For the 2019 version, there are proposals being worked that would require the use of some form of advanced control in typical building spaces (specifically open offices to start) to capture that improved control effectiveness. These requirements, if implemented in 2019, are likely to speak to what the control must do in aggregate but not specify a specific control. This approach would ensure the control function is there and allow any effective combination of products and technologies. The 2019 version is also likely to pick up where the 2016 version left off in terms of LED technology efficacy being the base for lighting power density limits. The 2016 version applied these efficacies to many applications and the 2019 version may add significantly more.
Eric Richman, LC, FIES is Senior Research Engineer, Energy Systems Analysis for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Chair of the ASHRAE/IES 90.1 Lighting Subcommittee.